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application of food additive calcium sulfate (gypsum) in baking
improve the hardness of water
water is one of the four basic raw materials for bread processing. the water requires moderate hardness which is 8-16 degrees. because the presence of calcium and magnesium in the hard water will strengthen the toughness of the gluten, making the bread feel rough, and make bread fermentation time longer. soft water will make the dough too soft, sticky, shorten the fermentation time which makes bread easy to collapse. hard water can be added in sodium carbonate to moderate softening; soft water can be added in calcium sulfate to increase the hardness which can increase gluten, improve the dough holding capacity, making bread bulky and loose.
adjust the dough’s ph, provide yeast growth environment, improve enzyme activity
calcium sulfate and other inorganic salts can adjust the ph value of the water, so that the yeast can grow in the optimum ph 5-6 environment. when the calcium ions in the dough reaches a certain concentration, the α-amylase can maintain proper conformation to maintain its maximum activity and stability. the α-amylase can break down the long chain of starch and decompose it into dextrin and a small amount of oligosaccharides, maltose and glucose which can provide carbon source for the yeast to produce co2, so that the bread volume increases.
as a yeast food
yeast plays an important role in the production of breads such as bread, pastries, etc., and its effects are as follows: biological bulking; dough gluten spread; produce volatile organic so that bread has a special scent and so on. calcium sulfate as an inorganic salt for yeast growth can provide the sulfur and calcium nutrient elements needed for yeast growth and reproduction. these elements are mainly used as the structure of yeast cells, sulfur as the constituent of yeast protein, calcium is the second messenger of yeast cells and the base of a variety of active protein. it is also helpful for the penetration of nutrients into the cells. at present, the bread additives contain ammonium and calcium salts as yeast food to promote the propagation and fermentation of yeast.
calcium sulfate as a flour calcium enhancer is widely used. according to the existing data (chemical, biochemical, toxicology, etc.), calcium sulfate in food additives has very low toxicity as food substances.